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HHS/FDA RIN: 0910-AF11 Publication ID: Fall 2005 
Title: Content and Format of Labeling for Human Prescription Drugs and Biologics; Requirements for Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling 
Abstract: To amend the regulations governing the format and content of labeling for human prescription drugs and biological products (21 CFR 201.56 and 201.57). 
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services(HHS)  Priority: Other Significant 
RIN Status: Previously published in the Unified Agenda Agenda Stage of Rulemaking: Proposed Rule Stage 
Major: No  Unfunded Mandates: No 
CFR Citation: 21 CFR 201.57 
Legal Authority: 21 USC 321; 21 USC 331; 21 USC 351 to 353; 21 USC 355; 21 USC 358; 21 USC 360; 21 USC 360b; 21 USC 360gg to 360ss; 21 USC 371; 21 USC 374; 21 USC 379e; 42 USC 216; 42 USC 241; 42 USC 262; 42 USC 264 
Legal Deadline:  None

Statement of Need: Under FDA's current regulations, labeling concerning the use of prescription drugs in pregnancy uses letter categories (A, B, C, D, X) to characterize the risk to the fetus of using the drug during pregnancy. Dissatisfaction with the category system has been expressed by health care providers, medical organizations, experts in the study of birth defects, women’s health researchers, and women of childbearing age. These stakeholders have expressed the view that the current categories are confusing and overly simplistic and thus are not adequate to communicate risks effectively. One of the deficiencies of the category system is that drugs may be assigned to the same category when the severity, incidence, and types of risk are quite different. Stakeholders consulted through a public hearing, several focus groups, and several advisory committees have recommended that FDA replace the category system with a concise narrative summarizing a product's risks to pregnant women and to women of childbearing age. It has also been strongly recommended that pregnancy labeling address the situation where a woman has taken drugs before she realizes she is pregnant. The labeling that would be required under the proposed rule would be responsive to the concerns discussed above, and others that have been expressed by critics of the current category system.

Summary of the Legal Basis: FDA has broad authority under sections 201, 301, 501, 502, 503, 505, and 701 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) (21 U.S.C. 321, 331, 351,352, 353, 355, and 371) and section 351 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 262) to help ensure that prescription drugs (including biological products that are regulated as drugs) are safe and effective for their intended uses. A major part of FDA’s efforts concerning the safe and effective use of drug products involves review, approval, and monitoring of drug labeling. Under section 502(f)(1) of the Act, a drug is misbranded unless its labeling bears “adequate directions for use” or it is exempted from this requirement by regulation. Under section 201.100 (21 CFR 201.100), a prescription drug is exempted from the requirement in section 502(f)(1) of the Act only if, among other things, it contains the information required and in the format specified by sections 201.56 and 201.57. Under section 502(a) of the Act, a drug product is misbranded if its labeling is false or misleading in any particular. Under section 505(d) and 505(e) of the Act, FDA must refuse to approve an application or may withdraw approval of an application if the labeling for the drug is false or misleading in any particular. Section 201(n) of the Act provides that in determining whether the labeling of a drug is misleading, there shall be taken into account not only representations or suggestions made in the labeling, but also the extent to which the labeling fails to reveal facts that are material in light of such representations or material with respect to consequences which may result from use of the drug product under the conditions of use prescribed in the labeling or under customary conditions of use. These statutory provisions, combined with section 701(a) of the Act and section 351 of the Public Health Service Act, clearly authorize FDA to publish a proposed rule designed to help ensure that practitioners prescribing drugs (including biological products) to pregnant women and women of childbearing age would receive information essential to the safe and effective use of these drugs.

Alternatives: The alternatives to the proposal include not amending our existing regulation governing the format and content of labeling for human prescription drugs and biological products. This alternative is inconsistent with widespread stakeholder dissatisfaction with the pregnancy labeling provided pursuant to the current regulation.

Anticipated Costs and Benefits: The proposed rule would impose one-time costs for firms to modify drug product labeling. The extent of these modifications would depend on whether a product's labeling is affected by the physician labeling final rule (PLR). If the labeling is affected by the PLR, firms would be required to revise the pregnancy labeling section according to the new content and format requirements of the pregnancy rule and to submit the revised labeling to FDA for approval. For product labeling of older products not affected by the PLR, the current pregnancy category would be removed. In addition to the one-time costs, firms would incur ongoing incremental printing costs for product labeling affected by the PLR. Over 7 years, the present value of the total costs of the proposed rule is anticipated to range from about $25 million with a 7 percent discount rate to about $30 million with a 3 percent discount rate. The revised format and the information provided in the labeling would make it easier for health care providers to understand the risks and benefits of drug use during pregnancy and lactation. A better understanding of risks and benefits would help women and their healthcare providers make informed decisions about whether or not to use drugs during pregnancy and lactation. Labeling under the rule would also provide information geared to women who took drugs before they knew they were pregnant. Such information may often be reassuring to women and their health care providers.

Risks: None.

Timetable:
Action Date FR Cite
NPRM  09/00/2006   
Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Undetermined  Government Levels Affected: None 
Small Entities Affected: Businesses  Federalism: No 
Included in the Regulatory Plan: Yes 
Agency Contact:
Christine F. Rogers
Regulatory Counsel
Department of Health and Human Services
Food and Drug Administration
Suite 3059 (HFD-7), Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Bldg. 51, Room 6316,
Silver Spring, MD 20993-0002
Phone:301 796-3601
Fax:301 847-8440
Email: christine.rogers@fda.hhs.gov

 
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