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EPA/AR RIN: 2060-AQ11 Publication ID: Spring 2010 
Title: ●Risk and Technology Review for Ferroalloys Production 
Abstract: Under the "technology review" provision of CAA section 112, EPA is required to review maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards and to revise them "as necessary (taking into account developments in practices, processes and control technologies)" no less frequently than every 8 years. Under the "residual risk" provision of the CAA section 112, EPA must evaluate the MACT standards within 8 years after promulgation and promulgate standards if required to provide an ample margin of safety to protect public health or prevent an adverse environmental effect. EPA has combined the two review activities into the "risk and technology" (RTR) reviews for the Ferroalloys Production source category. This source category was originally part of the Group 3 previously listed in RIN 2060-AO97. A ferroalloy is an alloy of iron and one or more other elements, such as nickel, chromium, manganese, and/or silicon. Silicon metal is also typically considered a ferroalloy product. In addition, calcium carbide production uses virtually the same equipment and processes as ferroalloys, and was included in the Ferroalloys New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), as well as the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for ferroalloy area sources. Ferroalloy products are consumed primarily in iron and steel making, where they are used to produce steel and cast iron products with enhanced or special properties. Ferroalloys production consists of charging a submerged electric arc furnace (EAF) with raw materials, smelting the ores, and tapping or pouring the molten product. Raw material and product handling (e.g., crushing and screening operations) also occur as part of the ferroalloy production process. The emission source types at ferroalloys production facilities include open EAF, semi-closed EAF, tapping operations, metal oxygen refining (MOR) processes, crushing and screening operations, ladle treatment, casting, and fugitive dust sources. The specific hazardous air pollutants (HAP) that are emitted, and the quantity of these emissions, are related to the amount of HAP compounds present in the raw materials used. Metallic HAP expected to be emitted by the furnaces include chromium, nickel, manganese, lead, antimony, cadmium, arsenic, mercury, and selenium. Emissions of phosphorus and polycyclic organic matter (POM), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), are also expected, but in relatively small quantities. In most cases, HAP exist only in trace amounts in raw materials (such as coal or scrap metal) and, therefore, emissions generally are relatively low. However, manganese is a constituent in some of the final products such as ferromanganese and silicomanganese and is present in large quantities in the raw materials. Therefore, emissions of manganese can be significant. Additionally, compounds such as chlorine and fluorides are present in coal, which is used as a raw material in EAF, and, thus, hydrochloric acid (HCl) and hydrogen fluoride (HF) emissions can be significant. 
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)  Priority: Substantive, Nonsignificant 
RIN Status: First time published in the Unified Agenda Agenda Stage of Rulemaking: Long-Term Actions 
Major: No  Unfunded Mandates: No 
CFR Citation: 40 CFR 63   
Legal Authority: 42 USC 7401 et seq   
Legal Deadline:
Action Source Description Date
NPRM  Statutory    10/31/2011 
Final  Statutory    06/30/2012 
Action Date FR Cite
ANPRM  To Be Determined    
NPRM  To Be Determined    
Additional Information: SAN No. 5417.
Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: No  Government Levels Affected: Federal, State 
Small Entities Affected: No  Federalism: No 
Included in the Regulatory Plan: No 
RIN Data Printed in the FR: No 
Agency Contact:
Conrad Chin
Environmental Protection Agency
Air and Radiation
Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
Phone:919 541-1512
Fax:919 541-3207

Sharon Nizich
Environmental Protection Agency
Air and Radiation
Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
Phone:919 541-2825
Fax:919 541-5450

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