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EPA/OCSPP RIN: 2070-AJ57 Publication ID: Fall 2010 
Title: Lead; Clearance and Clearance Testing Requirements for the Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program 
Abstract: On May 6, 2010, EPA proposed several revisions to the 2008 Lead Renovation, Repair, and Painting Program (RRP) rule that established accreditation, training, certification, and recordkeeping requirements, as well as work practice standards for persons performing renovations for compensation in most pre-1978 housing and child-occupied facilities. Current requirements include training renovators, other renovation workers, and dust sampling technicians; for certifying renovators, dust sampling technicians, and renovation firms; for accrediting providers of renovation and dust sampling technician training; for renovation work practices; and for recordkeeping. EPA is particularly concerned about dust lead hazards generated by renovations because of the well documented toxicity of lead, especially to younger children. This proposal includes additional requirements designed to ensure that lead-based paint hazards generated by renovation work are adequately cleaned after renovation work is finished and before the work areas are re-occupied. Specifically, EPA proposed to require dust wipe testing after many renovations covered by the RRP rule. For a subset of jobs involving demolition or removal of plaster through destructive means or the disturbance of paint using machines designed to remove paint through high-speed operation, such as power sanders or abrasive blasters, this proposal would also require the renovation firm to demonstrate, through dust wipe testing, that dust-lead levels remaining in the work area are below regulatory levels. 
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)  Priority: Economically Significant 
RIN Status: Previously published in the Unified Agenda Agenda Stage of Rulemaking: Final Rule Stage 
Major: Yes  Unfunded Mandates: Private Sector 
CFR Citation: 40 CFR 745 
Legal Authority: 15 USC 2601(c); 15 USC 2682(c)(3); 15 USC 2684; 15 USC 2686; 15 USC 2687 
Legal Deadline:
Action Source Description Date
Final  Judicial  Signature  07/15/2011 
NPRM  Judicial  Signature  04/22/2010 

Statement of Need: EPA is particularly concerned about dust lead hazards generated by renovations because children, especially younger children, are at risk for high exposures of lead-based paint dust via hand-to-mouth exposure. This rulemaking revision is being considered in response to a settlement agreement.

Summary of the Legal Basis: Section 402(c)(3) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requires EPA to regulate renovation or remodeling activities that create lead-based paint hazards in target housing, which is defined by statute to cover most pre-1978 housing, public buildings built before 1978, and commercial buildings. The work practice requirements for dust wipe testing and clearance, training, certification and accreditation requirements, and State, territorial, and tribal authorization provisions are being promulgated under the authority of TSCA sections 402(c)(3), 404, and 407 (15 U.S.C. 2682(c)(3), 2684, and 2687).

Alternatives: In addition to the proposed rule option, the Economic Analysis for the proposed rule analyzes several alternative options, including options with lower and higher thresholds (in terms of the amount of lead-based paint disturbed) for renovations that require dust wipe testing or clearance. See also the discussion in the preamble to the proposed rule at page 25058 et seq.

Anticipated Costs and Benefits: Benefits. The proposed rule is estimated to generate benefits by providing greater assurance that dust-lead hazards created by renovations are adequately cleaned up, primarily by requiring renovation firms to provide building owners and occupants with information on dust lead levels remaining in the work area after many renovation projects, but also by requiring renovation firms to demonstrate that they have achieved regulatory clearance levels after some of the dustiest renovations. These changes will protect individuals residing in target housing or attending a child-occupied facility where these renovation events are performed. It will also protect individuals who move into target housing after such a renovation is performed, or who visit a friend, relative, or caregiverís house where such a renovation is performed. EPA has estimated the number of individuals residing in target housing units or attending COFs where renovation events are performed. The proposed rule will benefit 809,000 children under the age of 6 and 7,547,000 individuals age 6 and older (including 96,000 pregnant women) per year by minimizing their exposure to lead dust generated by renovations. The low threshold option would protect 882,000 children under the age of 6 and 8,193,000 individuals age 6 and older, including 105,000 pregnant women. The high threshold option protects 706,000 children and 6,590,000 individuals age 6 and older, including 83,000 pregnant women. The remaining three alternative options (dust wipe testing only, clearance only, and third party dust wipe testing) would affect the same number of individuals as the proposed rule, although the amount of protection provided to some of those individuals may differ from the proposed rule. Costs. Total annualized costs for the proposed rule are $272 million per year using a 3 percent discount rate and $293 million per year using a 7 percent discount rate. Under the low threshold option, costs are $312 million per year with a 3 percent discount rate and $336 million per year with a 7 percent rate. Under the high threshold option, costs are $224 million per year with a 3 percent discount rate and $242 million per year with a 7 percent discount rate. The option that only requires dust wipe testing costs $268 million per year with a 3 percent discount rate and $288 million per year with a 7 percent discount rate. The option requiring clearance for all renovations covered by the proposed rule costs $367 million with a 3 percent discount rate and $394 million with a 7 percent discount rate. The option requiring the use of a third-party for dust wipe sampling costs $431 million per year with a 3 percent discount rate and $459 million per year with a 7 percent discount rate. These cost estimates are based on the assumption that improved lead test kits would be available.

Risks: Lead is known for its "broad array of deleterious effects on multiple organ systems via widely diverse mechanisms of action." (EPA Air Quality Criteria for Lead, October 2006). This array of health effects includes heme biosynthesis and related functions; neurological development and function; reproduction and physical development; kidney function; cardiovascular function; and immune function. There is also some evidence of lead carcinogenicity, primarily from animal studies, together with limited human evidence of suggestive associations. Of particular interest to EPA during the RRP rulemaking was the delineation of lowest observed effect levels for those lead-induced effects that are most clearly associated with blood lead levels of less than 10 micrograms per deciliter in children and adults. See also the discussion in the preamble to the proposed rule at page 25039 et seq.

Timetable:
Action Date FR Cite
NPRM  05/06/2010  75 FR 25038 
NPRM Comment Period End  07/06/2010   
NPRM Extension of Comment Period  07/07/2010  75 FR 38959 
NPRM Comment Period Extended To  08/06/2010   
Final Action  07/00/2011   
Additional Information: EPA publication information: NPRM - http://www.regulations.gov/search/Regs/home.html#documentDetail?R=0900006480ae7efa; EPA Docket information: EPA-HQ-OPPT-2005-0049
Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes  Government Levels Affected: Federal, Local, State, Tribal 
Small Entities Affected: Businesses  Federalism: No 
Included in the Regulatory Plan: Yes 
RIN Information URL: http://www.epa.gov/lead/pubs/renovation.htm  
RIN Data Printed in the FR: Yes 
Agency Contact:
Cindy Wheeler
Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
7404T,
Washington, DC 20460
Phone:202 566-0484
Email: wheeler.cindy@epa.gov

Michelle Price
Environmental Protection Agency
Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention
7404T,
Washington, DC 20460
Phone:202 566-0744

 
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