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HHS/FDA RIN: 0910-AB88 Publication ID: Fall 2001 
Title: Current Good Manufacturing Practice in Manufacturing, Packing, or Holding Dietary Ingredients and Dietary Supplements 
Abstract: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced in an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) of February 6, 1997 (62 FR 5700), its plans to consider developing regulations establishing current good manufacturing practices (CGMP) for dietary supplements and dietary ingredients. The ANPRM was published in order for FDA to solicit comments on whether it should initiate action to establish CGMP regulations and if so, what constitutes CGMP for these products. FDA announced that this effort was in response to the section of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the Act) that provides authority to the Secretary of Health and Human Services to promulgate CGMP regulations and to a submission from the dietary supplement industry asking that FDA consider an industry-proposed CGMP framework as a basis for CGMP regulations. The ANPRM also responds to concerns that such regulations are necessary to ensure that consumers are provided with dietary supplement products which have not been adulterated as a result of manufacturing, packing, or holding; which have the identity and provide the quantity of dietary ingredients declared in labeling; and which meet the quality specifications that the supplements are represented to meet. 
Agency: Department of Health and Human Services(HHS)  Priority: Economically Significant 
RIN Status: Previously published in the Unified Agenda Agenda Stage of Rulemaking: Proposed Rule Stage 
Major: Yes  Unfunded Mandates: Private Sector 
EO 13771 Designation: uncollected 
CFR Citation: 21 CFR 111   
Legal Authority: 21 USC 321    21 USC 342    21 USC 343    21 USC 348    21 USC 371    21 USC 374    21 USC 381    21 USC 393    42 USC 264   
Legal Deadline:  None

Statement of Need: FDA intends to publish a proposed rule to establish current good manufacturing practices (CGMP) for dietary supplements and dietary ingredients for several reasons. First, FDA is concerned that some firms may not be taking appropriate steps during the manufacture of dietary supplements and dietary ingredients to ensure that products are not adulterated as a result of manufacturing, packing, or holding. There have been cases of misidentified ingredients harming consumers using dietary supplements. FDA is also aware of products that contain potentially harmful contaminants because of apparently inadequate manufacturing controls and quality control procedures. The agency believes that a system of CGMP is the most effective and efficient way to ensure that these products will not be adulterated during manufacturing, packing, or holding.

Summary of the Legal Basis: If CGMP regulations were adopted by FDA, failure to manufacture, pack, or hold dietary supplements or dietary ingredients under CGMP regulations would render the dietary supplement or dietary ingredients adulterated under section 402(g) of the Act.

Alternatives: The two principal alternatives to comprehensive CGMP are end-product testing and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP). In the ANPRM, FDA asked for public comment on approaches to ensure that dietary supplements and dietary ingredients are not adulterated during the manufacturing process. The agency asked whether HACCP may be a more effective approach than a comprehensive CGMP, and whether different approaches may be better able to address the needs of the broad spectrum of firms that conduct one or more distinct operations, such as the manufacture of finished products, or solely the distribution and sale of finished products at the wholesale or retail level. FDA will consider the information it received in response to the ANPRM and from other sources, such as public meetings and small business outreach meetings, in its consideration of whether CGMP or other approaches are most appropriate.

Anticipated Costs and Benefits: A comprehensive CGMP (or other system of ensuring that dietary supplements and dietary ingredients are not adulterated during manufacturing, packing, or holding) would permit more effective and efficient oversight by Federal, State, and local governments. It would place primary responsibility for ensuring that these products are not adulterated during manufacturing, packing, or holding on the manufacturer, packer or holder by requiring that they implement a system to control their processes. FDA anticipates that costs to industry generated by implementing a comprehensive manufacturing process, whether CGMP or other plan, would be offset in four ways: (1) by reducing the amount of supplement-associated illnesses or adverse events; (2) by increasing public confidence in dietary supplements marketed in the United States; (3) by enabling U.S. supplements companies to compete more effectively in the world market; and (4) by decreasing the number of future product recalls.

Risks: Any potential for consumers to be provided adulterated (e.g., contaminated with industrial chemicals, pesticides, microbial pathogens, or dangerous misidentified ingredients or toxic components of ingredients) products must be considered a very serious risk because of the possibility that such contamination could be widespread, affecting whole segments of the population, causing some severe long-term effects and even loss of life. Dietary supplements are used by a large segment of the American public. Moreover they are often used by segments of the population that are particularly vulnerable to adulterated products, such as the elderly, young children, pregnant and nursing women, and persons who may have serious illnesses or are taking medications that may adversely interact with dietary supplements. FDA has adopted or proposed manufacturing controls for a number of foods and commodities that present potential health hazards to consumers if not processed properly, including seafood, juice products, and fruits and vegetables and it is appropriate that FDA consider whether manufacturing controls are necessary to assure consumers that dietary supplements are not adulterated during the manufacturing, packing, or holding process.

Action Date FR Cite
ANPRM  02/06/1997  62 FR 5700   
ANPRM Comment Period End  06/06/1997    
NPRM  12/00/2001    
Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes  Government Levels Affected: Undetermined 
Small Entities Affected: Businesses  Federalism: Undetermined 
Included in the Regulatory Plan: Yes 
Agency Contact:
Karen Strauss
Consumer Safety Officer
Department of Health and Human Services
Food and Drug Administration
(HFS-820), Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, 5100 Paint Branch Parkway,
College Park, MD 20740
Phone:301 436-2370
Fax:301 436-2636