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EPA/AR RIN: 2060-AQ86 Publication ID: Fall 2013 
Title: Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles: Tier 3 Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards 
Abstract: This action would establish more stringent vehicle emissions standards and reduce the sulfur content of gasoline as part of a systems approach to addressing the impacts of motor vehicles and fuels on air quality and public health. The rule would result in significant reductions in pollutants such as ozone, particulate matter, and air toxics across the country and help state and local agencies in their efforts to attain and maintain health-based National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). These proposed vehicle standards are intended to harmonize with California's Low Emission Vehicle program, thus creating a federal vehicle emissions program that would allow automakers to sell the same vehicles in all 50 states. The vehicle standards would also coordinate with the light-duty vehicle greenhouse gas standards for model years 2017-2025, creating a nationwide alignment of vehicle programs for criteria pollutant and greenhouse gases. 
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)  Priority: Economically Significant 
RIN Status: Previously published in the Unified Agenda Agenda Stage of Rulemaking: Final Rule Stage 
Major: Yes  Unfunded Mandates: Private Sector 
CFR Citation: 40 CFR 80    40 CFR 86    40 CFR 85    40 CFR 600    40 CFR 1036    40 CFR 1037    40 CFR 1065    40 CFR 1066   
Legal Authority: Clean Air Act sec 202(a)    Clean Air Act sec 202(k)    Clean Air Act sec 211(c)   
Legal Deadline:  None

Statement of Need: States are working to attain National Ambient Air Quality Standards for ozone, PM and NOx. Light-duty vehicles are responsible for a significant portion of the precursors to these pollutants and are large contributors to ambient air toxic pollution. In many nonattainment areas, by 2014, cars and light trucks are projected to contribute 30 to 45 percent of total nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, 20 to 25 percent of total volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, and 5 to 10 percent of total direct particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions. Importantly, without future controls, by 2020 mobile sources are expected to be as much as 50 percent of the inventories of these pollutants for some individual urban areas. EPA has estimated that light-duty vehicles will contribute about half of the 2030 mobile source inventory of air toxics emissions from all mobile sources. The most recent National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment showed that, in 2005, mobile sources were responsible for over 50 percent of the cancer risk and noncancer hazard.

Summary of the Legal Basis: The Clean Air Act section 202(a) provides EPA with general authority to prescribe vehicle standards, subject to any specific limitations elsewhere in the Act. In addition, section 202(k) provides EPA with authority to issue and revise regulations applicable to evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons from all gasoline-fueled motor vehicles. EPA is also using its authority under section 211(c) of the Clean Air Act to address gasoline sulfur controls.

Alternatives: The rulemaking proposal discussed regulatory alternatives that were considered in addition to the Agency's primary proposal.

Anticipated Costs and Benefits: EPA estimates that the proposed program would cost about a penny per gallon of gasoline, and about $130 per vehicle. The annual cost of the overall program in 2030 would be approximately $3.4 billion; however, EPA estimates that in 2030 the annual monetized health benefits of the proposed Tier 3 standards would be between $8 and $23 billion.

Risks: Approximately 158 million people currently live in counties designated nonattainment for one or more of the NAAQS, and this figure does not include the people living in areas with a risk of exceeding the NAAQS in the future. These people experience unhealthy levels of air pollution, which are linked with respiratory and cardiovascular problems and other adverse health impacts that lead to increased medication use, hospital admissions, emergency department visits, and premature mortality. The reductions in ambient ozone and PM2.5 that would result from the proposed Tier 3 standards would provide significant health benefits. In addition, more than 50 million people live, work, or go to school in close proximity to high-traffic roadways, and the average American spends more than one hour traveling along roads each day. Exposure to traffic-related pollutants has been linked with adverse health impacts such as respiratory problems (particularly in asthmatic children) and cardiovascular problems. The Tier 3 standards would reduce criteria pollutant and air toxic emissions from cars and light trucks, which continue to be a significant contributor to air pollution directly near roads.

Action Date FR Cite
NPRM  05/21/2013  78 FR 29815   
NPRM Comment Period Extended  05/29/2013  78 FR 32223   
Final Rule  02/00/2014 
Additional Information: Docket #:EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0135
Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes  Government Levels Affected: None 
Small Entities Affected: Businesses  Federalism: No 
Included in the Regulatory Plan: Yes 
RIN Information URL:   Public Comment URL:!docketDetail;D=EPA-HQ-OAR-2011-0135  
Sectors Affected: 11 Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting; 211112 Natural Gas Liquid Extraction; 324110 Petroleum Refineries; 325110 Petrochemical Manufacturing; 325193 Ethyl Alcohol Manufacturing; 325199 All Other Basic Organic Chemical Manufacturing; 333618 Other Engine Equipment Manufacturing; 335312 Motor and Generator Manufacturing; 336111 Automobile Manufacturing; 336112 Light Truck and Utility Vehicle Manufacturing; 336120 Heavy Duty Truck Manufacturing; 336211 Motor Vehicle Body Manufacturing; 336311 Carburetor, Piston, Piston Ring, and Valve Manufacturing; 336312 Gasoline Engine and Engine Parts Manufacturing; 424690 Other Chemical and Allied Products Merchant Wholesalers; 424710 Petroleum Bulk Stations and Terminals; 486910 Pipeline Transportation of Refined Petroleum Products; 493130 Farm Product Warehousing and Storage; 811111 General Automotive Repair; 811112 Automotive Exhaust System Repair; 811198 All Other Automotive Repair and Maintenance 
RIN Data Printed in the FR: Yes 
Agency Contact:
Catherine Yanca
Environmental Protection Agency
Air and Radiation
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:734 214-4769

Kathryn Sargeant
Environmental Protection Agency
Air and Radiation
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:734 214-4441