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EPA/AR RIN: 2060-AS16 Publication ID: Fall 2015 
Title: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles--Phase 2 

During the President's second term, the EPA and the Department of Transportation, in close coordination with the California Air Resources Board, are developing a comprehensive National Program for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission and Fuel Efficiency Standards for model years beyond 2018. These second sets of standards would further reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fuel consumption from a wide range of on-road vehicles from semi-trucks to the largest pickup trucks and vans, and all types and sizes of work trucks and buses. This action will be in continued response to the President's directive to take coordinated steps to produce a new generation of clean vehicles. This action follows the first ever Greenhouse Gas Emissions Standards and Fuel Efficiency Standards for Medium- and Heavy-Duty Engines and Vehicles (75 FR 57106, September 15, 2011).

Agency: Environmental Protection Agency(EPA)  Priority: Economically Significant 
RIN Status: Previously published in the Unified Agenda Agenda Stage of Rulemaking: Final Rule Stage 
Major: Yes  Unfunded Mandates: No 
CFR Citation: 40 CFR 1036    40 CFR 1037    40 CFR 9    40 CFR 22    40 CFR 85    40 CFR 86    40 CFR 600    40 CFR 1033    40 CFR 1039    40 CFR 1042    40 CFR 1043    40 CFR 1065    40 CFR 1066    40 CFR 1068   
Legal Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. Clean Air Act   
Legal Deadline:  None

Statement of Need:

Under Clean Air Act authority, the EPA has determined that emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) from new motor vehicles and engines cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health and welfare. Therefore, there is a need to reduce GHG emissions from medium- and heavy-duty vehicles to protect public health and welfare. The medium- and heavy-duty truck sector accounts for approximately 23 percent of the U.S. mobile source GHG emissions and is the second-largest mobile source sector. GHG emissions from this sector are forecast to continue increasing rapidly; reflecting the anticipated impact of factors such as economic growth and increased movement of freight by trucks. This rulemaking would significantly reduce GHG emissions from future medium- and heavy-duty vehicles by setting GHG standards that will lead to the introduction of GHG-reducing vehicle and engine technologies.

Summary of the Legal Basis:

The Clean Air Act section 202(a)(1) states that "The Administrator shall by regulation prescribe (and from time to time revise) in accordance with the provisions of this section, standards applicable to the emission of any air pollutant from any class or classes of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines, which in his judgment cause, or contribute to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare." Section 202(a) covers all on-highway vehicles including medium- and heavy-duty trucks. In April 2007, the Supreme Court found in Massachusetts v. EPA that greenhouse gases fit well within the Act's definition of "air pollutant" and that EPA has statutory authority to regulate emission of such gases from new motor vehicles. Lastly, in April 2009, EPA issued the Proposed Endangerment and Cause-or-Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under the Clean Air Act. The endangerment proposal stated that greenhouse gases from new motor vehicles and engines cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health and welfare.


The rulemaking will include an evaluation of regulatory alternatives. In addition, the rule is expected to include tools such as averaging, banking, and trading of emissions credits as an alternative approach for compliance with the program.

Anticipated Costs and Benefits:

Detailed analysis of economy-wide cost impacts, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and societal benefits will be performed during development of the rule.


The failure to set new GHG standards for medium- and heavy-duty trucks risks continued increases in GHG emissions from the trucking industry and therefore increased risk of unacceptable climate change impacts.

Action Date FR Cite
NPRM  07/13/2015  80 FR 40137   
NPRM Comment Period End  09/11/2015 
NPRM Comment Period Extended  09/02/2015  80 FR 53756   
NPRM Comment Period Extended End  10/01/2015 
Final Rule  07/00/2016 
Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes  Government Levels Affected: Federal, State 
Small Entities Affected: Businesses  Federalism: No 
Included in the Regulatory Plan: Yes 
RIN Data Printed in the FR: Yes 
Agency Contact:
Matt Spears
Environmental Protection Agency
Air and Radiation
Mail Code: ASD1,
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:734 214-4921
Fax:734 214-4816

Charles Moulis
Environmental Protection Agency
Air and Radiation
Ann Arbor, MI 48105
Phone:734 214-4826